One fine afternoon at UI, RSCM, Eijkman Institute

This Monday afternoon – September 12, 2016 (national holiday of Eid Qurban) then Alif and I didn’t go far for vacation. We went to campus of University of Indonesia at Salemba street, Central Jakarta, walked around (some security guards voluntarily kindly guided us) before we ended the day with burger and fries at McDonald’s across the street.

Google maps location: http://goo.gl/4qaFXg

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Official website: http://www.ui.ac.id

Universitas Indonesia (UI) is the oldest tertiary-level educational institution in Indonesia (known as the Dutch East Indies when UI was established). Generally considered as the most prestigious university in Indonesia, in the 2015/2016 QS World Universities Ranking, UI is ranked 1st in Indonesia, 79th in Asia and 358th in the world.

The roots of UI date back to 1851. At that time, the colonial government of the Dutch East Indies established a school to train medical assistants. Training lasted for two years, and the graduates were certified to provide basic medical treatments. The degree conferred was Javanese Doctor, as the graduates were certified only to open their practice in the Dutch East Indies, especially Java. The program became more comprehensive; by 1864 it was expanded to three years. By 1875, the program of study had reached seven years and the graduates were entitled to the degree of Medical Doctor.

The next step came in 1898, when the Dutch East Indies government established a new school to train local people to become medical doctors, named STOVIA (School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen). The prerequisite to enter STOVIA was roughly the equivalent of a junior high school diploma. The schooling took nine years, so it was a mix between high school and university education.

In 1924, the colonial government again decided to open a new tertiary-level educational facility, the RHS (Rechts Hogeschool), to train civilian officers and servants. The RHS would later evolve into the Faculty of Law.

In 1927, STOVIA’s status was changed to that of a full tertiary-level institution and its name was changed to GHS (Geneeskundige Hogeschool). The GHS occupied the same main building and used the same teaching hospital as the current Medical Faculty.

After Indonesia gained independence, the Indonesian Institute for Higher Education (BPTRI) was established in Jakarta consisting of three faculties: Medical and Pharmacy, Letters, and Law. The institute produced its first 90 graduate students as medical doctors in the same year.

When the Dutch colonial army occupied Jakarta in late 1945, the BPTRI moved to Klaten, Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Surabaya and Malang. In 1946, the Dutch colonial government established the Nood Universiteit or Emergency University at Jakarta. In 1947, the name was changed to Universiteit van Indonesië (UVI) or Universitas Indonesia. Following the Indonesian National Revolution, the government established a state university in Jakarta in February 1950. The name was Universiteit Indonesia, comprising the BPTRI units and the former UVI, which was later changed into Universitas Indonesia (UI).

By 1950, UI was a multi-campus university, with faculties in Jakarta (Medical, Law, and Letters), Bogor (Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine), Bandung (Engineering, Mathematics and Natural Sciences), Surabaya (Medical and Dentistry), and Makassar (Economics). The Surabaya campus became the University of Airlangga in 1954. In the following year, the Makassar campus became the University of Hasanuddin. In 1959, the Bandung campus became the Bandung Institute of Technology. The School for Physical Education, which was also in Bandung, became part of Padjadjaran University in 1960. In 1964, the Bogor campus became the Bogor Agricultural Institute and the Faculty of Education in Jakarta became the State University of Jakarta.

By 1965, UI consisted of three campuses, all in Jakarta: Salemba (Medical, Dentistry, Economics, Engineering, Science and the Graduate School), Rawamangun (Letters, Law, Social Science and Psychology) and Pegangsaan (Public Health and parts of Medical).

In 1987, all faculties from the Salemba and Rawamangun campuses (other than Medical and Dentistry) moved to a newly built campus in the outskirts of Jakarta. The campus in southern Jakarta is known as the Depok campus (because it’s located in the city of Depok).

CIPTO NATIONAL HOSPITAL

Official website: http://www.rscm.co.id

Google map location: http://goo.gl/WsKKmn

cipto

Indonesian’s abbreviation for this national hospital is RSCM, Rumah Sakit Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo.

The history of this hospital is related with the history of Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia, since the developing of these two institutions rely on each other and fill each other.

Established since November 19, 1919 as CBZ (Centrale Burgulijke ziekenhuis), the hospital was tied with STOVIA.

In March 1942 when Indonesia is settled by Japan, CBZ became university hospital (Ika Daigaku Byongin).

In the 1945, CBZ changed its name to Rumah Sakit Oemoem Negeri (RSON) before changed it again to Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat (RSUP) in 1950.

On August 17, 1964 then Minister of Health, Prof. Dr. Satrio, legalized RSUP became Rumah Sakit Dr. Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo (RSTM). With new Indonesian spelling since 1972, “tj” = “c” and “oe” = “u”, then it’s abbreviation became RSCM.

Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo (1886-1943) was one of Indonesian first medical doctor who fought for the country’s independence through diplomatic channels.

EIJKMAN INSTITUTE

Official website: http://www.eijkman.go.id

Google map location: http://goo.gl/5a3Vhj

eijkman

The current full name of this institution is Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology.

The Eijkman Institute is one of the most prestigious and internationally acclaimed research institutions ever established in Indonesia. From its foundation in 1888 as a Research Laboratory for Pathology and Bacteriology, the institute has had a long and proud scientific tradition. Here, Christiaan Eijkman, its first director, carried out most of his early work, which resulted in the great discovery of the relationship between vitamin B1 deficiency and beri-beri.

In recognition of his fundamental work, upon which the modern concept of vitamins is based, Eijkman won a Nobel Prize in 1929. The research laboratory was subsequently designated as the Central Medical Laboratory and later, at the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of its founding, the Eijkman Institute. At its peak early last century, the Eijkman Institute was a world of famous center for tropical medicine, but it was closed in the 1960’s amid the economic hardships that followed the struggle for Indonesian independence.

Later The Eijkman Institute has been revived as a response to the urgent need of Indonesia for a biomedical research institute capable of tapping the substantial growth of knowledge and the technological developments that have been made in molecular cell biology in recent years; a development that has led to considerable advances in medicine and biotechnology, with all their associated industrial and commercial implications.

The initiative to revive the Eijkman Institute as a medium by which to establish a research institute of international standing in molecular cell biology was conceived in the office of the Indonesian Minister of Research and Technology. It was endorsed by the President of Indonesia at the centenary commemoration of Christiaan Eijkman’s discovery of vitamin B1 deficiency as the cause of beri-beri in December 1990. The Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology formally came into existence in July 1992, commenced operations in April 1993 and was officially inaugurated by President Soeharto on 19th September 1995.

Today, the institute is again a vibrant research environment. The number of international scientific collaborations has significantly increased. They include the Australia-Indonesia Medical Research Initiative (AIMRI) with the Water and Eliza Hall Institute as well as a relationship with Monash University in Melbourne, Australia which focuses on the molecular biology of the malaria infection. Special relationships with the University of Indonesia, Monash University, University of Queensland in Australia, and Utrecht University in the Netherlands, allow the institute to conduct master and doctoral programs. The institute is a key node in the national science and technology network, and for several years has involved a national research mentoring grant scheme for novice scientists in medical research. As initially intended, the institute brings together a critical mass of scientists with a wide range of expertise, essential for any successful endeavour in modern biomedical and biotechnological research.

There was a tragic history about this institute as recorded on http://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/K/e/Kempeitai.htm

In February 1944, an outbreak of tetanus among hundreds of Javanese laborers was traced to contaminated vaccines. Professor Doctor Muchtar (Director of The Eijkman Institute, first Indonesian who held that position) treated many of the victims and blamed the outbreak on botched preparation of the vaccines by Japanese military doctors. The Kempeitai intervened, accused Dr. Muchtar of deliberately contaminating the vaccines to prevent the laborers from working for the Japanese, and imprisoned him for nine months before beheading him and running over his body with a steam roller. Given the role of the Kempeitai in biological warfare research, it is reasonable to suspect the vaccines were deliberately contaminated by the Japanese doctors as part of a biological warfare experiment and Professor Muchtar was murdered to cover up this fact. Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno accepted the Kempeitai version of the incident, inflating the number of victims to “tens of thousands” in his memoirs.

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Source: Wikipedia and respective official websites.

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